Background[ edit ] After the breakout from Normandy at the end of July and the Allied landings in southern France on 15 Augustthe Allies advanced toward Germany more quickly than anticipated. Eisenhower the Supreme Allied Commander on the Western Front and his staff chose to hold the Ardennes region which was occupied by the U. The Allies chose to defend the Ardennes with as few troops as possible due to the favorable terrain a densely wooded highland with deep river valleys and a rather thin road network and limited Allied operational objectives in the area.
Although the German planning described herein antedates the opening gun by several weeks, the story of the combat operations begins on 16 December By 3 January the German counteroffensive was at an end, and on that date the Allies commenced an attack that would take them across the Rhine and into Germany.
The last phase of operations in the Ardennes, therefore, is properly part and parcel of the final Allied offensive in Europe, and so the course of battle beginning on 3 January is described in another and final volume of this subseries.
The problem of the level of treatment is always difficult in the organization and writing of the general staff type of history, which is the design of this volume.
In describing a war of movement, the solution usually has been to concentrate on tactical units smaller than those normally treated when the war of position obtains. Thus the French General Staff history of the summer offensive in abruptly descends from the army corps to the regiment as the appropriate tactical unit to be traced through this period of mobile operations.
The story of the Ardennes Campaign is even more difficult to organize because of the disappearance, in the first hours, of a homogeneous front. Thus the reader is introduced on 16 December to battles fought by companies and platoons because they are meaningful and because the relative importance of these actions is as great as operations conducted by regiments or even divisions later in the story.
As the American front congeals and a larger measure of tactical control is regained, the narrative follows battalions, then regiments, and then divisions. The building blocks, however, are the battalion and the regiment.
In US Army practice during the war in western Europe, the battalion was in organization and doctrine the basic unit, with both tactical and administrative functions.
The regiment, in turn when organized as a regimental combat team was the basic maneuver element combining the arms and having staying power. Also, the regiment was the lowest infantry unit to have a name and a history with which the soldier could, and did, identify himself.
The span of tactical control in these widely dispersed actions simply was beyond the physical grasp of higher commanders. These higher commanders could "influence" the battle only by outlining in very general terms the scheme of maneuver, allocating reserves, and exercising whatever moral suasion they personally could bring to bear.
In other words, "tactics came before strategy," as Ludendorff wrote of the March offensive in For the early days of the Ardennes Campaign the narrative opens each successive stage of the account by a look at the enemy side of the hill.
This, in fact, is mandatory if the story is to have cohesion and meaning because the Germans possessed the initiative and because the American forces were simply reacting to the enemy maneuvers.
The account in later chapters shifts to the American camp in accordance with the measure to which the American forces had regained operational freedom. This volume represents the most exhaustive collection of personal memoirs by leading participants ever attempted for a general staff history of a major campaign.
The memoirs take two forms: The use of the combat interview in the European Theater of Operations was organized by Col. Ganoe, theater historian, but the specific initiation of an intensive effort to cover the Ardennes story while the battle itself was in progress must be credited to Col.Jul 12, · Find out more about the history of Battle of the Bulge, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more.
a major German offensive is launched against the Allies.
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The Battle of the Bulge was fought from 16 December until – 25 January and was the last German offensive launched on the Western front and went. The Battle of the Bulge (16 December – 25 January ) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
It was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in eastern Belgium, northeast France, and Luxembourg, Location: The Ardennes: Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December – 25 January ) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II. It was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in eastern Belgium, northeast France, and Luxembourg, Location: The Ardennes: Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany. The Battle of the Buldge was the last of the German attacks. It lasted from December 16, to January 28, The Battle of the Buldge was the largest land battle of World War 2. More then a million men participated in this battle, , germans, , Americans and 55, British armies. The Battle of the Bulge, fought over the winter months of – , was the last major Nazi offensive against the Allies in World War Two. The battle was a last ditch attempt by Hitler to split the Allies in two in their drive towards Germany and destroy their ability to supply themselves.
It marked a turning point in World War II. Battle of Stalingrad Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from to , that was the furthest extent of German . A significant turning point of World War II, the Battle of Britain ended when Germany’s Luftwaffe failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force despite months of targeting Britain’s.