This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watsonwho in his manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior. Also since James defined it, the term more strongly connotes techniques of scientific experimentation.
Common causes[ edit ] People can experience loneliness for many reasons, and many life events may cause it, such as a lack of friendship relations during childhood and adolescenceor the physical absence of meaningful people around a person. At the same time, loneliness may be a symptom of another social or psychological problem, such as chronic depression.
Many people experience loneliness for the first time when they are left alone as infants. It is also a very common, though normally temporary, consequence of a breakupdivorceor loss of any important long-term relationship.
In these cases, it may stem both from the loss of a specific person and from the withdrawal from social circles caused by the event or the associated sadness. The loss of a significant person in one's life will typically initiate a grief response ; in this situation, one might feel lonely, even while in the company of others.
Loneliness may also occur after the birth of a child often expressed in postpartum depressionafter marriageor following any other socially disruptive event, such as moving from one's home town into an unfamiliar communityleading to homesickness.
Loneliness can occur within unstable marriages or other close relationships of a similar nature, in which feelings present may include anger or resentmentor in which the feeling of love cannot be given or received.
Loneliness may represent a dysfunction of communicationand can also result from places with low population densities in which there are comparatively few people to interact with. Loneliness can also be seen as a social phenomenoncapable of spreading like a disease.
When one person in a group begins to feel lonely, this feeling can spread to others, increasing everybody's risk for feelings of loneliness. These genes operate in a similar manner in males and females. The study found no common environmental contributions to adult loneliness.
In particular, one way of thinking about loneliness is as a discrepancy between one's necessary and achieved levels of social interaction while solitude is simply the lack of contact with people. Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience; if a person thinks they are lonely, then they are lonely.
People can be lonely while in solitude, or in the middle of a crowd. What makes a person lonely is the fact that they need more social interaction or a certain type of social interaction that is not currently available. A person can be in the middle of a party and feel lonely due to not talking to enough people.
Conversely, one can be alone and not feel lonely; even though there is no one around that person is not lonely because there is no desire for social interaction. There have also been suggestions that each person has their own optimal level of social interaction. If a person gets too little or too much social interaction, this could lead to feelings of loneliness or over-stimulation.
One study found that, although time spent alone tended to depress a person's mood and increase feelings of loneliness, it also helped to improve their cognitive statesuch as improving concentration.
Furthermore, once the alone time was over, people's moods tended to increase significantly. In some people, temporary or prolonged loneliness can lead to notable artistic and creative expression, for example, as was the case with poets Emily Dickinson and Isabella di Morraand numerous musicians [ who?
This is not to imply that loneliness itself ensures this creativity, rather, it may have an influence on the subject matter of the artist and more likely be present in individuals engaged in creative activities.
It has also been referred to as state and trait loneliness.
Transient state loneliness is temporary in nature, caused by something in the environment, and is easily relieved. Chronic trait loneliness is more permanent, caused by the person, and is not easily relieved.
Once the person got better it would be easy for them to alleviate their loneliness. A person who feels lonely regardless of if they are at a family gathering, with friends, or alone is experiencing chronic loneliness.
It does not matter what goes on in the surrounding environment, the experience of loneliness is always there. Loneliness as a human condition[ edit ] The existentialist school of thought views loneliness as the essence of being human.
Each human being comes into the world alone, travels through life as a separate person, and ultimately dies alone.
Coping with this, accepting it, and learning how to direct our own lives with some degree of grace and satisfaction is the human condition.Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and pfmlures.com is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest.
As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups. Trauma and Human Existence effectively interweaves two themes central to emotional trauma - the first pertains to the contextuality of emotional life in general, and of the experience of emotional trauma in particular, and the second pertains to the recognition that the possibility of emotional trauma is built into the basic constitution of human existence.
Jean Paul Sartre: Existentialism.
The philosophical career of Jean Paul Sartre () focuses, in its first phase, upon the construction of a philosophy of existence known as pfmlures.com's early works are characterized by a development of classic phenomenology, but his reflection diverges from Husserl’s on methodology, the conception of the self, and an interest in ethics.
(NewsTarget) Colostrum has been called the promise of life. It is the first food, in which all the immune and growth factors that insure health and vitality are transferred from the mother to the newborn.
Existentialism. Existentialism is a catch-all term for those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.