Recital[ edit ] Congressional sessions open with the recital of the Pledge, as do many government meetings at local levels, and meetings held by many private organizations. All states except HawaiiIowaVermont and Wyoming require a regularly scheduled recitation of the pledge in the public schoolsalthough the Supreme Court has ruled in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette that students cannot be compelled to recite the Pledge, nor can they be punished for not doing so. The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag—"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
Central to early challenges were Jehovah's Witnessesa group whose beliefs preclude swearing loyalty to any power lesser than God. Gobitisan 8—1 majority in the Court held that a school district's interest in promoting national unity permitted it to require Witness students to recite the Pledge along with their class mates.
Gobitis was an unpopular decision in the press, and it led to a rash of mob violence and intimidation against Jehovah's Witnesses;  three years later in West Virginia State Board of Education vs.
Barnettethe Court reversed itself, voting 6—3 to forbid a school from requiring the Pledge. As a result, since public schools have been disallowed from punishing students for not reciting the Pledge.
Nonetheless, it remains taught to and expected of school children in many schools, as the Court leaves many details in such matters up to respective state governments. More specific objections have been raised since the addition of the phrase "under God" to the Pledge.
The year of its addition,was also near the beginning of the Cold War anti-communist movement in the United States. Matter of Lewis v. Allen[ edit ] In response to the June 14, Congressional change of the wording of the Pledge found in U. Lewis challenging the constitutionality of the addition of the new phrase.
Lewis was a publisher, writer, and co-founder of Freethinkers of America. Joseph Lewis maintained that the Commissioner of Education of the State of New York had a duty, which he had failed to perform, to revoke the regulation requiring the recitation of the Pledge with the new phrase, and reinstate the old wording.
Lewis did not cite any state regulations concerning the Commissioner, but held the Commissioner was bound to act by the U. The court held that it was not within the Commissioner's domain to determine the constitutionality of acts performed by the State or Federal Legislatures.
The Court then turned to Lewis' contention that the New York law that ordered the recitation of the Pledge had been rendered unconstitutional by the new wording, "Petitioners claim that freethinkers, nonbelievers, atheists and agnostics cannot be compelled to recite the present pledge of allegiance because it includes the words 'under God', and such compulsion violates the aforesaid constitutional provisions.
Barnette which resulted in fines and threats of imprisonment against those refusing to say the pledge being ruled unconstitutional, the Court held that "The regulation under attack here has no compulsory aspect.
No penalties attach to a failure or refusal to recite the pledge. The pledge is made voluntarily and no penalties are imposed for noncompliance. Jackson 's concurring opinion in McCollum v. New York State Justice Isadore Bookstein wrote "If I properly apprehend the intent, design and purposes of the First Amendment, it was conceived to prevent and prohibit the establishment of a State Religion; it was not intended to prevent or prohibit the growth and development of a Religious State.
United States which stated "this is a religious nation", and the ruling Zorach v.
Clauson which stated "We are a religious people whose institutions presuppose a Supreme Being.The Pledge of Allegiance In discussion of the Pledge of Allegiance, a controversial issue is whether “Under God” should be removed of kept in the pledge.
God Should Remain in the Pledge of Allegiance - God Should Remain in the Pledge of Allegiance One of the most controversial issues, if “Under God” should remain in the pledge, and if children should be required to say it, went to court a few weeks ago.
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. Changes The Pledge of Allegiance has been revised 3 times, each time with the addition of some phrase to the original form.
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Scoring a religious Trifecta of sorts, the Pledge was amended in to include the words "under God;" legislation to add the motto "In God We Trust" to all coins and currency was passed in ; and the national motto "E Pluribus Unum" [out of many, one] was changed to "In God We Trust" in The Pledge of Allegiance Pledge allegiance to the flag of United States of America.
And to the republic for which it stands. One nation under god, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.